In 1969, the USA Congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy held a hearing at the head of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and was being questioned on why build a new $250 million particle collider. What did a particle collider have to do with the security of the country? Physicist Robert Wilson replied “It has nothing to do directly with defending our country except to make it worth defending.” 1
During Part I of his two part The Role of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering online seminar series, Dominique Hebrault discussed scale-up challenges faced today by chemists and engineers. Too often, offline sampling methods – mostly chromatographic methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Gas Chromatography (GC) – are used to monitor processes which fail to resolve common issues like reaction monitoring, poor mass balance, delayed initiation/reaction stalled, and loss of yield/by-products. From a reaction engineering standpoint, obtaining heat mass balance information and preliminary kinetic data can be difficult using traditional offline methods during process scale-up. Forming the final solid can be challenging using traditional offline methods, including filtration/drying a bottleneck, excessive washing, polymorph inconsistency, and batch to batch variability can be difficult.