Highly reactive chemistry is the generic term referring to chemical reactions that pose a challenge due to the potentially hazardous and/or energetic nature of the reactants, intermediates and products that are present during synthesis. Highly reactive chemistries include Grignard, acid chloride, azide, halogenation, and hydrogenation. Continue reading →
Last week, I attended the VisiMix International Conference in Boston, MA. Held at the Colonnade Hotel, the conference focused on the influence of mixing unit operations in your process and featured presentations by well-respected leaders in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries on topics including: Continue reading →
This is the first blog post in a 2 part series in which I will discuss the real-time monitoring of bio-based chemical synthesis.
Biocatalysis continues to evolve, with the application of recombinant organisms or isolated enzymes designed to catalyze specific chemical reactions – often with highly regiospecific and stereospecific conversions. In the optimization of any chemical synthesis reaction – by traditional or biocatalyzed routes – it is not enough to simply report the yield and the enantiameric excess (ee), the kinetics of the reaction must also be considered. Understanding how the kinetics are affected by conditions such as pH and temperature allows optimization of biocatalysis through the identification of operating conditions that can ensure a maximum yield and desired ee in a timely manner. Continue reading →
Among the presentations in the Advanced On-Line Analytical and Optimization Tools in Pilots Plants Session at the 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting will be the New Developments in Heat Transfer Scale Down and In Situ FT-IR Scale-up From the Lab to the Plant. The presentation, which will be given by Leen Schellekens, will include the challenges that Chemical Engineers face in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, including globalization, environmental and safety regulations, and shortening product life cycles and the ever increasing time pressure for commercial releases. Continue reading →
For years, we have been discussing the value of the Tr-Tj expression (Tr = reaction temperature, Tj = heating/cooling jacket temperature). The ease of use and the valuable insight gained into chemistry from the Tr-Tj expression has already been leveraged by chemists around the world. Since I feel that there are more chemists out there who would benefit from the use of Tr-Tj on a regular basis, I thought I would tell a story to illustrate the value of the Tr-Tj expression.Continue reading →
During Part I of his two part The Role of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering online seminar series, Dominique Hebrault discussed scale-up challenges faced today by chemists and engineers. Too often, offline sampling methods – mostly chromatographic methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Gas Chromatography (GC) – are used to monitor processes which fail to resolve common issues like reaction monitoring, poor mass balance, delayed initiation/reaction stalled, and loss of yield/by-products. From a reaction engineering standpoint, obtaining heat mass balance information and preliminary kinetic data can be difficult using traditional offline methods during process scale-up. Forming the final solid can be challenging using traditional offline methods, including filtration/drying a bottleneck, excessive washing, polymorph inconsistency, and batch to batch variability can be difficult. Continue reading →