Tag Archives: chemical reaction

Common Ways to Reduce Solubility and Drive Crystallization

This is the second blog post in a series dedicated to crystallization. In case you missed the first in the series, you can find it here: Introduction to Crystallization and Precipitation.

Reduce Solubility and Drive CrystallizationThe starting point for most crystallization processes is a saturated solution. Crystallization is generally achieved by reducing the solubility of the product in this solution by cooling, antisolvent addition, evaporation* or some combination of these methods. Another common method used to drive crystallization is via a chemical reaction where two or more reactants are mixed to form a solid product insoluble in the reaction mixture; a common example of this would be the reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt. Continue reading

Common Ways to Reduce Solubility and Drive Crystallization

This is the second blog post in a series dedicated to crystallization.  In case you missed the first in the series, you can find it here: Introduction to Crystallization and Precipitation.

Reduce Solubility and Drive CrystallizationThe starting point for most crystallization processes is a saturated solution. Crystallization is generally achieved by reducing the solubility of the product in this solution by cooling, antisolvent addition, evaporation* or some combination of these methods. Another common method used to drive crystallization is via a chemical reaction where two or more reactants are mixed to form a solid product insoluble in the reaction mixture; a common example of this would be the reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt. Continue reading

How Has Organic Chemistry Changed in Academia?

Traditionally, organic chemistry students have been instructed to analyze reactions using standard offline analytical methods, such as High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, and Gas Chromatography (GC).

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Pfizer YouTube video: Process Analytical Technology – Using Mid-IR spectroscopy to monitor a telescoped chemical reaction

Ian Clegg, an Associate Research Fellow at Pfizer Global Research and Development Sandwich Laboratories, United Kingdom recently posted a discussion on LinkedIn’s Process Analytical Technology (PAT) group site titled “PAT data (Mid-IR) posted onto YouTube.”

This YouTube video is entitled “Process Analytical Technology: Using Mid-IR spectroscopy to monitor a telescoped chemical reaction.”

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWec0O6WtUU

In this video, 3 sequential chemical reactions are run in one vessel without stopping or isolating between reactions, and ReactIR™ (real-time in situ reaction analysis) is used to monitor all 3 reaction phases. All of the key reagents, intermediates and products produce unique peaks which show reaction progression without having to take samples. The video shows the spectra of the reaction as a function of time and how the spectra change. The video shows clearly which peaks were monitored and to which components those peaks correlate.

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