Some of the major challenges faced by researchers (and in particular – organic and analytical chemists) include the need to quickly determine reaction kinetics as well as gain sufficient information to fully understand, characterize and optimize chemical reactions. This is leading researchers to find innovative ways to obtain the information they require to successfully complete their work.
The starting point for most crystallization processes is a saturated solution. Crystallization is generally achieved by reducing the solubility of the product in this solution by cooling, antisolvent addition, evaporation* or some combination of these methods. Another common method used to drive crystallization is via a chemical reaction where two or more reactants are mixed to form a solid product insoluble in the reaction mixture; a common example of this would be the reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt. Continue reading →
Crystallization touches every aspect of our lives from the foods we eat and the medicines we take, to the fuels we use to power our communities. The majority of pharmaceutical products go through at least one crystallization step during their manufacture. Salt and sugar are delivered to our dinner tables as crystals. The unwanted crystallization of gas hydrates played a role in the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Continue reading →
Three speakers from the 2010 In-Process Particle Forum will present at IFPAC [International Forum Process Analytical Technology] on January 21, 2011 in Baltimore, MD. Steve Mehrman of Johnson & Johnson and James Butz of Merck & Co. are scheduled to present during the Particle Characterization/Analysis-Ultrasound Spectroscopy Friday AM V session at IFPAC. Kevin Macias of Bristol-Myers Squibb will present during the Control Strategies for Drug Product Development and Manufacturing Friday AM VII session. Continue reading →
Often, I hear questions surrounding what are liquid dosage formulations. I thought I might take the opportunity to provide a short introduction to liquid dosage formulations. Liquid dosage formulations may be in the form of suspensions or syrups, metered dosed inhalers (MDIs), or creams or lotions. All of these systems would typically have particles present or droplets present in their formulations. There could also be parentals, such as injections or intravenous infusions, which may be particle free. Continue reading →
As I look ahead to 2011, an event of interest is EuroPACT 2011: the second European Conference on Process Analytics and Control Technology. The EuroPACT 2011 event will be held April 26 to 29 in Glasgow. Founded in 2006, the EuroPACT conference covers new technologies in process analytics and process performance monitoring, and the implementation of these technologies in various technological fields, including the transformation of data into knowledge, and industrial sectors.
One poster presentation that I wanted to highlight is – Faster Optimization and Troubleshooting with Process Analytical Technology: Real-time Measurement of the Crystal Population. Continue reading →