Tag Archives: blog

Common Ways to Reduce Solubility and Drive Crystallization

This is the second blog post in a series dedicated to crystallization. In case you missed the first in the series, you can find it here: Introduction to Crystallization and Precipitation.

Reduce Solubility and Drive CrystallizationThe starting point for most crystallization processes is a saturated solution. Crystallization is generally achieved by reducing the solubility of the product in this solution by cooling, antisolvent addition, evaporation* or some combination of these methods. Another common method used to drive crystallization is via a chemical reaction where two or more reactants are mixed to form a solid product insoluble in the reaction mixture; a common example of this would be the reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt. Continue reading

Introduction to Crystallization & Precipitation

Crystallization touches every aspect of our lives from the foods we eat and the medicines we take, to the fuels we use to power our communities. The majority of pharmaceutical products go through at least one crystallization step during their manufacture. Salt and sugar are delivered to our dinner tables as crystals. The unwanted crystallization of gas hydrates played a role in the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Continue reading

Particle Size Distribution, Particle Shape, and Particle Count – Track Changes

Recently, I met several scientists who did not realize Lasentec® (Lasentech) was acquired by METTLER TOLEDO.  It is hard to believe that it has already been 10 years since METTLER TOLEDO acquired Lasentec® and became the world leader for inline particle characterization technology!

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Is Lithium Salt More Like Organolithium Or Azaenolate?

2-Lithio-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyloxirane: Carbanion or Azaenolate?

Vito Capriati*, Saverio Florio*, Renzo Luisi, Filippo Maria Perna and Agnese Spina
Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università di Bari, Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale Metodologie e Processi Innovativi di Sintesi C.I.N.M.P.I.S., Via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy; J. Org. Chem., 2008, 73 (24), pp 9552–9564.

Structure, Configurational Stability and Stereodynamics in Solution
During this work, Vito Capriati, Saverio Florio and colleagues at the University of Bari in Italy used in situ Infrared (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together to give a better insight into the stability of lithium salt and to ultimately answer the question:

“Is the lithium salt more like an organolithium or is it more like an azaenolate?”
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Metal Catalyzed Transformations Using In Situ Spectroscopy

Metal Catalyzed Transformations have been a key topic in academic research for a number of years, both for their scientific interest, as well as the large number of reactions that have become important to industry. Continue reading

Upcoming Continuous Flow Chemistry Events

Regular visitors to this blog will be familiar with recent continuous flow chemistry events in what I consider to be a very exciting, fast-developing area of chemistry. When I was reading the recent blog post regarding the upcoming Pfizer Flow Technology Expo, I thought about other upcoming flow chemistry events, including: Continue reading

Enhance Your Understanding of a Crystallization Process

A common challenge faced by both chemists and engineers is how to achieve an enhanced understanding of the crystallization process.

The EasyMax has provided a powerful, yet nimble platform for chemists and engineers to get a lot of work done.  It has been great to see how well the EasyMax has been embraced, especially for crystallization work.  Simon Rea developed a way to make it even better for particle characterization:

Crystallization Process FBRM PVM EasyMax

At last, you can use the FBRM and PVM simultaneously in your EasyMax!  This new PTFE lid makes it possible to see your: Continue reading

Supersaturation: Driving Force For Crystal Nucleation & Growth

This is the third blog post in a series dedicated to crystallization.  In case you missed the first and second in the series, they are available here: Introduction to Crystallization and Precipitation and Common Ways to Reduce Solubility and Drive Crystallization.

Supersaturation is the driving force for all solution crystallization processes. Crystallization scientists gain control over crystallization process and product quality by carefully controlling the prevailing level of supersaturation during the process. Continue reading