I am very much looking forward to attending the 19th Larson Workshop – ACT (Association for Crystallization Technology) conference in Indianapolis next week (October 6-9).
Seeding has become one of the most critical steps in optimizing crystallization behavior, process efficiency, and product quality. Inconsistent filtration rates, drying times, yields, bulk density, flow properties, and particle size distributions can often be traced back to inconsistent seeding and nucleation. Many parameters must be taken into consideration when designing a seeding strategy such as seed size, seed loading (mass) and seed addition temperature. These parameters are generally optimized based on process kinetics and the desired final particle properties and must remain consistent during scale-up and technology transfer. Continue reading
I’m really looking forward to attending the annual American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) meeting in Pittsburgh, PA this year. It is always a great opportunity to meet excellent scientists working in very diverse areas. As a chemical engineer it is also nice to focus on chemical engineering for a change! – since many of the conferences I attend are chemistry orientated.
It is also great to see so many papers being presented that Continue reading
The Analysis of Particle Sizes in Process: Measuring Techniques for Emulsions and Suspensions Workshop takes place this week (October 10-12) at the University of Potsdam Institute for Chemistry. This workshop not only focuses the theory of particle size but also the technology that can be used for real-time, in-process measurements. One of the most interesting sessions will be on the emerging areas where particle size is gaining traction – particle measurement in biotechnology. Continue reading
I’m really looking forward to the Continuous Flow Chemistry and Crystallization Development Symposium that will take place in New Brunswick, NJ on September 26. Two colleagues will present new crystallization research that I think will be of interest to the local scientific community. Continue reading
There are several interesting upcoming crystallization conferences and meetings. Continue reading
Basel, Switzerland is a unique place with an impressive concentration of scientists and engineers focused on optimizing pharmaceutical and fine chemical processes. Continue reading
During crystallization development, chemists often produce crystals rapidly without time for a full Design of Experiment (DoE). Continue reading
Crystallization and precipitation are critical processing steps in chemical development. They can serve as purification and separation steps, and have implications on the yield, purity and particle size distribution. Even though crystallization has advanced significantly over the past decade, many chemists have such short deadlines that they must base everyday decisions on past experience rather than understanding the crystals in situ. Due to the complexity of crystallization, a process may be developed simply by crashing solids out of solution and transferring a non-robust process with inconsistencies in the yield, purity and particle size distribution. Continue reading
This is the sixth blog post in a special series dedicated to crystallization. In case you missed the previous posts in the series, they are available here:
- Introduction to Crystallization and Precipitation
- Common Ways to Reduce Solubility and Drive Crystallization
- Supersaturation: Driving Force For Crystal Nucleation & Growth
- Importance of Crystal Size and Shape Distribution
- Impact of Process Parameters on Supersaturation and Crystal Size and Shape
Previously, we looked at a case study that neatly illustrated the concept that slow supersaturation generation often results in a growth dominated process that is typically repeatable. As a rule of thumb, slow cooling works great – but its main drawback is the extended cycle times that often result. To overcome this problem, a common technique often used is non-linear cooling.
If we dive a little bit deeper into the governing equations of crystal growth and nucleation.. Continue reading