Recently, I was reviewing an interesting presentation Asphaltenes, Waxes, Emulsions, and Oil Supensions: Inline Particle and Droplet Measurement. This discusses how particles and droplets cause problems in pipeline flow, with special focus on flow assurance optimization using:
- Methane gas hydrates
- Oil-water emulsions
- Asphaltene precipitates/wax crystallization
- Sand-water separations
If you are interested in additional ideas on how to measure particle and droplet distributions in dark crude oil or dense drilling fluids, you may want to view this presentation on flow assurance.